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December 10, 2021

Ground Fault vs. Short Circuit: The Differences

Modern electrical systems are complex, featuring several major components working in tandem. All these components are crucial for efficiency, but more components ultimately means a higher chance of problems.

Ultimately, almost every business and home will experience electrical issues at one point or another. And with so many potential culprits, determining the source of a problem can be difficult without the aid of an experienced electrical engineer.

But that’s not to say you can’t make a good guess. Two of the most common causes of electrical problems are ground faults and short circuits. In this guide, we’ll go over what you need to know about each. Ground faults vs. short circuits: here are the differences.

What’s a Short Circuit?

A short circuit is what happens when a hot wire makes contact with a neutral or ground wire. This creates a huge amount of current that travels back to the electrical source via the neutral or ground wire. This often causes circuit breakers to trip and cut off power to anything powered by that particular circuit. Short circuits get their name from how they bypass the full circuit wiring and travel back to the source using a shortcut. The most common causes of short circuits include loose connections, melted wire insulation, and damaged wires.

What’s a Ground Fault?

When a hot wire makes contact with a ground wire or a grounded part of the electrical system, like an electrical box, it’s called a ground fault. During a ground fault, a massive amount of current forms and flows directly into the ground. This uncontrolled current can cause circuit breakers to trip, much like short circuits can. Common causes of ground faults include water leaking into electrical boxes and worn wires.

What’s the Difference?

As you can see, the differences between ground faults and short circuits are few and far between. Both occur when a current bypasses the full wiring system and uses an alternate route to return to the electrical source. Short circuits and ground faults can both cause electrical shocks and fires. If one occurs, keep an eye and nose out for flames and smoke, and if you need to approach the circuit box to fix it, do so carefully.

While short circuits and ground faults aren’t completely preventable, there are steps you can take to minimize the risk of them. Dreiym Engineering offers site walk-down inspections to help you locate the cause of electrical problems and put them to a stop. We also offer as-built drawing services for your facility so you can catch problems with electrical revisions early on. Contact us today to learn more about our services or set up a consultation!

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